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Formation: Common Irregular Forms

There are a small number of verbs which are irregular in the present subjunctive: haber, ir, saber, ser, dar y estar. You might like to consider there to be three patterns among these verbs: the aya pattern, the e-a pattern, and the é pattern.

(For the formation of the regular present subjunctive, see this note.)

The aya pattern

haber – auxilary verb “to have”

Person/Number Singular Plural
1st person haya hayamos
2nd person hayas hayáis
3rd person haya hayan

ir – to go

Person/Number Singular Plural
1st person vaya vayamos
2nd person vayas vayáis
3rd person vaya vayan

The e-a pattern

ser – to be (inherent characteristics)

Person/Number Singular Plural
1st person sea seamos
2nd person seas seáis
3rd person sea sean

saber – to know a fact / how to do something

Person/Number Singular Plural
1st person sepa sepamos
2nd person sepas sepáis
3rd person sepa sepan

The é pattern

dar – to give

Person/Number Singular Plural
1st person demos
2nd person des deis
3rd person den

estar – to be (state or condition)

Person/Number Singular Plural
1st person esté estemos
2nd person estés estéis
3rd person esté estén

“Tricky” Regular Verbs

These verbs are not irregular in the present subjunctive. Starting with the yo form of the present indicative, they are formed perfectly normally. Nevertheless, they are frequently missed by Spanish learners since generating the regular forms requires one to know the irregular form in the present indicative.

The “g” verbs

Infinitive yo Present Indicative Present Subjunctive
caer (to fall) caigo caiga caigamos
caigas caigáis
caiga caigan
decir (to say/tell) digo diga digamos
digas digáis
diga digan
hacer (to make/do) hago haga hagamos
hagas hagáis
haga hagan
oír (to hear) oigo oiga oigamos
oigas oigáis
oiga oigan
poner (to put/place) pongo ponga pongamos
pongas pongáis
ponga pongan
salir (to leave/go out) salgo salga salgamos
salgas salgáis
salga salgan
tener (to have/hold) tengo tenga tengamos
tengas tengáis
tenga tengan
traer (to bring) traigo traiga traigamos
traigas traigáis
traiga traigan
venir (to come) vengo venga vengamos
vengas vengáis
venga vengan

The -cer “zc” verbs (this is just a selection of these verbs)

Infinitive yo Present Indicative Present Subjunctive
conocer (to be familiar) conozco conozca conozcamos
conozcas conozcáis
conozca conozcan
nacer (to be born) nazco nazca nazcamos
nazcas nazcáis
nazca nazcan
parecer (to seem) parezco parezca parezcamos
parezcas parezcáis
parezca parezcan

The -uir “uya” verbs (a selection)

Infinitive yo Present Indicative Present Subjunctive
construir (to build) construyo constuya construyamos
construyas construyáis
construya construyan
destruir (to destroy) destruyo destruya destruyaamos
destruyas destruyáis
destruya destruyan
huir (to flee) huyo huya huyamos
huyas huyáis
huya huyan

Miscellaneous “gotchas”

Infinitive yo Present Indicative Present Subjunctive
caber (to fit) quepo quepa quepamos
quepas quepáis
quepa quepan
ver (to see) veo vea veamos
veas veáis
vea vean

For the formation of the regular present subjunctive, see this note.