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Formation: Regular Present Subjunctive

There are four simple steps to forming the present subjunctive:

(for how and when to use the subjunctive mode, see here.)


2014-06-23 – © Baldo Partners: Hector Cantú & Carlos Castellanos; Universal UClick
  1. Start with the yo form of the present indicative. Eg.:

    hablo — como — vivo — tengo — oigo

    (this step is very important and in my experience, it’s the step most often forgotten by students)

  2. Remove the ‘o’ of the form above:

    habl — com — viv — teng — oig

    (if the yo form of the verb doesn’t end in an ‘o’, then that verb is irregular in the present subjunctive and you will have to simply learn the irregular forms. See the forms of haber, for example, below

  3. “Swap” the vowel class of the verb and conjugate appropriately. In other words, if the verb is an -ar verb, treat it as if it were an -er/-ir verb. Likewise, if it’s an -er or -ir verb, treat it as if it were an -ar verb.

  4. Conjugate for the person and number that you need. Eg.,

hablar Singular Plural
1st hable hablemos
2nd hables habléis
3rd hable hablen
comer Singular Plural
1st coma comamos
2nd comas comáis
3rd coma coman
vivir Singular Plural
1st viva vivamos
2nd vivas viváis
3rd viva vivan
tener Singular Plural
1st tenga tengamos
2nd tengas tengáis
3rd tenga tengan
oír Singular Plural
1st oiga oigamos
2nd oigas oigáis
3rd oiga oigan

The present perfect subjunctive

To form the present perfect subjuntive, use the subjunctive form of haber with the perfect participle. Haber is irregular in the present subjunctive.

  Singular Plural
1st haya hayamos
2nd hayas hayáis
3rd haya hayan

Me pone triste que no hayas terminado.
Insisto en que hayas estudiado el español antes del examen.